How improved crop breeding is shaping the world’s youth
As we mark International Youth Day, let’s look at how breeding is shaping the futures of young adults and children. Also published on Farming First.
When you think of urgent youth priorities, crop breeding may not come quickly to mind. But better crops are central to the welfare of youth – particularly in low-and middle-income countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In fact, their futures depend on the rapid development of improved crop varieties.
CGIAR’s Accelerated Breeding Initiative and partners are improving their breeding programs to benefit communities, including youths, in countries across the Global South. As we mark International Youth Day, let’s look at how breeding is shaping the futures of young adults and children.
In regions where malnutrition and food insecurity continue to be pressing concerns, improved and modernized crop breeding is playing a pivotal role in delivering nutrition to youths.
For instance, CGIAR’s efforts have led to the development of vitamin A-enriched orange-fleshed sweet potatoes. More than 140 million preschool-aged children – primarily in Africa and Asia – suffer from vitamin A deficiency, which weakens their immune system and robs approximately 500,000 children of their sight each year.
And across Asia, where rice is a dietary staple, CGIAR developed rice varieties with enhanced zinc and iron content. Zinc deficiency is prevalent in the region, leading to compromised immune systems and stunted growth in children. By developing high-zinc rice, breeders are directly combating the hidden hunger crisis plaguing countless children.
In 2022 alone, CGIAR partners released 105 varieties biofortified to reduce malnutrition among youths and children. And we have proven that conventional crop breeding can increase nutrient levels without compromising yield and other key traits important to farmers. Developing these nutrient-dense varieties means healthier youths across the world.
Reducing drudgery and saving time
Farming and home processing work often falls to youth and women. These can be painstaking tasks. But new crop varieties can help decrease drudgery by targeting varieties that require less weeding or can be more readily threshed, processed and/or cooked. Basing breeding decisions on high quality market intelligence ensures breeders deliver varieties with the greatest positive impact, including for women and youth.
For example, in Nigeria, CGIAR casava breeders used the G+ Customer Profile tool, which helps breeders understand the roles of women, youths and children in growing and processing crops. This drove them to develop casava varieties that peel and cook easily. For Nigeria’s rural regions, this alleviated some drudgery from household chores and crop production.
Another example is dry direct seeded rice, which can reduce the impacts of drudgery, stress, and health hazards for youth and women. The resulting time savings and quality of life improvements means youth can potentially focus more on their own education and development, or higher paying activities.
With climate and environmental challenges attacking crop production, breeders are developing climate resilient, high-yielding varieties to ensure smallholder farmers do not suffer poor harvests. For example, in Ghana, climate-smart maize varieties are boosting yields for farmers by up to 62%. With this extra income, families can reprioritize spending toward school, child development and health care.
CGIAR partners released 234 climate-resilient varieties in 2022 alone, including bananas, legumes and maize that can withstand heat, drought, pests or other climate related threats. They are poised to ensure farming families can secure their livelihoods through more robust harvests.
Creating employment along the value chain
Breeding for traits valued by alternative or emerging markets can also create employment opportunities outside of the farm.
For example, breeders in Malawi developed and released varieties that can be used for orange-fleshed sweetpotato purée – a key ingredient in baked and fried foods in Kenya, Malawi and Uganda. The varieties feature improved yields, taste and vitamin A content – and better processing qualities needed to make purée. Analysts expect this expansion of purée production to create employment opportunities for youth, as bakeries and other businesses see increased profits.
Such market-demanded varieties will lead to better suited products for local value chains, creating new entrepreneurial opportunities and employment, including for young adults.
Inspiring the next generation of farmers… or breeders
Agriculture and the broader food systems are the largest employer of young people in the Global South. And young minds hold the key to rethinking agriculture. Yet, younger generations often fail to see farming as a promising future. But as breeding programs boost harvests and livelihoods, youths may be enticed to stay on-farm and contribute to the vital roles of smallholder families.
As well, breeding science itself continually needs fresh minds. CGIAR and partners have plenty of talented breeders and leaders – including many women – with rural backgrounds in Africa, Asia and Latin America. They can inspire youth to seek out their own scientific and leadership roles.
The future is theirs!
CGIAR and partners are ensuring all local voices are involved in designing the next generations of crop varieties – including youth and women. As these improved crops reach smallholder farmers and communities, we can expect healthier, wealthier, happier generations of youth – with ever more opportunities. This means a better future for all of us.
Blog by Michael Quinn, CGIAR Accelerated Breeding Initiative Lead, with Adam Hunt, Head of Communications, CGIAR Genetic Innovation. Contents reflect the information and views of the authors/source material only. We would like to thank all funders who support this research through their contributions to the CGIAR Trust Fund. Photo: Youths working in Eastern Africa, Credit: C. Schubert (CCAFS)
Examples cited above represent the breeding work of:
- Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT
- International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
- International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
- International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
- International Potato Center (CIP)
- International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)