How Many Faces Does the Plant U-Box E3 Ligase Have?
Ubiquitination is a major type of post-translational modification of proteins in eukaryotes. The plant U-Box (PUB) E3 ligase is the smallest family in the E3 ligase superfamily, but plays a variety of essential roles in plant growth, development and response to diverse environmental stresses. Hence, PUBs are potential gene resources for developing climate-resilient crops. However, there is a lack of review of the latest advances to fully understand the powerful gene family. To bridge the gap and facilitate its use in future crop breeding, we comprehensively summarize the recent progress of the PUB family, including gene evolution, classification, biological functions, and multifarious regulatory mechanisms in plants.