Rift Valley fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and African swine fever virus: Three transboundary, vector-borne, veterinary biothreats with diverse surveillance and response capacity needs

Early detection of emerging foreign animal diseases is critical to pathogen surveillance and control programs. Rift valley fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and African swine fever represent three diverse vector-borne viruses with the potential to be introduced to the United States of America.

This study reviewed the current surveillance strategies and diagnostic tools in practice around the world for these emerging viruses, and summarized key points on the availability of existing guidelines and strategic approaches for early detection, surveillance and disease management. Surveillance and management approaches of the three viruses were compared and contrasted as case studies.

The information presented in this review will inform stakeholders of the current state of surveillance approaches against these transboundary foreign animal disease which threaten the United States of America.