A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk produced in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu County, Kenya

A cross-sectional study was designed to determine characteristics of smallholder dairy farming in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu and quantify aflatoxin M1 in milk. Data was collected from 97 randomly selected dairy farms on farming practices, milk production, and awareness about aflatoxins. Collected milk samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for aflatoxin M1. The study found that milk produced by smallholder dairy farmers in Kisumu County is frequently contaminated with aflatoxin M1, implying health risks for human and animals.