Modeling genotype × environment interaction for single and multitrait genomic prediction in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
In this study, we extend research on genomic prediction (GP) to polysomic polyploid plant species with the main objective to investigate single-trait (ST) and multitrait (MT) multienvironment (ME) models using field trial data from 3 locations in Sweden [Helgegården (HEL), Mosslunda (MOS), Umeå (UM)] over 2 years (2020, 2021) of 253 potato cultivars and breeding clones for 5 tuber weight traits and 2 tuber flesh quality characteristics. This research investigated the GP of 4 genome-based prediction models with genotype × environment interactions (GEs): (1) ST reaction norm model (M1), (2) ST model considering covariances between environments (M2), (3) ST M2 extended to include a random vector that utilizes the environmental covariances (M3), and (4) MT model with GE (M4). Several prediction problems were analyzed for each of the GP accuracy of the 4 models. Results of the prediction of traits in HEL, the high yield potential testing site in 2021, show that the best-predicted traits were tuber flesh starch (%), weight of tuber above 60 or below 40 mm in size, and the total tuber weight. In terms of GP, accuracy model M4 gave the best prediction accuracy in 3 traits, namely tuber weight of 40–50 or above 60 mm in size, and total tuber weight, and very similar in the starch trait. For MOS in 2021, the best predictive traits were starch, weight of tubers above 60, 50–60, or below 40 mm in size, and the total tuber weight. MT model M4 was the best GP model based on its accuracy when some cultivars are observed in some traits. For the GP accuracy of traits in UM in 2021, the best predictive traits were the weight of tubers above 60, 50–60, or below 40 mm in size, and the best model was MT M4, followed by models ST M3 and M2.