Measuring consumer acceptance of instant fortified millet products using affective tests and auctions in Dakar, Senegal
Small-scale affordable extruders create new opportunities for small enterprise food processors to manufacture nutritionally enhanced products. Still, consumer interest in these products needs to be assessed first. Affective tests with 296 consumers in Dakar, Senegal, evaluated five pearl millet flours: (a) conventional, compared to four instant-porridge flour products; (b) sifted; (c) wholegrain; (d) sifted with premix; (e) wholegrain with micronutrient premix and food-to-food fortified (FtFF). Willingness-to-pay (WTP) was elicited through experimental auctions under two treatments: firstly without information, then with information. Consumers liked FtFF (taste, aroma, appearance) but were indifferent to instant. They did not appreciate wholegrain flour (appearance) or premix (appearance, aroma and taste). Without information, consumers showed no differences in WTP. With information, consumers paid premiums for FtFF (27-30%) (both treatments), and premix (17%), instant (9%), and wholegrain (-10%) (one treatment). Costs of instant, wholegrain and premix products were lower than consumers’ WTP, indicating potential profits, but not those of FtFF. There is a market for instant cereals in Senegal. Consumers require product information in order to compromise on some attributes to benefit from instant, fortified and wholegrain pearl millet products. Manufacture would be cost-effective, but FtFF costs need to be reduced.