Efficient antioxidant defence systems of spring barley in response to stress induced jointly by the cyst nematode parasitism and cadmium exposure
Aims: This research aimed to establish how Hordeum vulgare responds to abiotic and biotic stress affecting in tandem. Methods: Plants were inoculated with Heterodera filipjevi and treated with cadmium (Cd) concentration (5 μM) that can occur in the cultivated soil. To verify the hypothesis about participation of increased antioxidative defence in H. vulgare under stress, biochemical and microscopic methods were implemented. Results: The amount of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide was diminished in plants that were both nematode-inoculated and cadmium-treated. Superoxide anions were rendered harmless by increased activity of superoxide dismutase, and H2O2 was scavenged via Foyer-Halliwell-Asada pathway. The unique enhanced antioxidant capacity of double stressed plants was also linked with the accumulation of S-nitrosoglutathione as nitrosoglutathione reductase activity was inhibited. Furthermore, stimulated activity of arginase in these plants could promote polyamine synthesis and indirectly enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanism. Results indicate that different antioxidants operating together significantly restricted oxidation of lipids and proteins, thus the integrity of cell membranes and protein functions were maintained. Conclusions: The ROS deactivation machinery in barley leaves showed an unusual response during stress induced by H. filipjevi infection and cadmium treatment. Plants could induce a multi-component model of stress response, to detoxify Cd ions and efficiently repair stress damage.