How does climate exacerbate root causes of livestock-related conflicts in Kenya? An impact pathway analysis
This factsheet gives answers on how climate exacerbates root causes of livestock-related conflict in
Kenya, using an impact pathway analysis.
Three main impact pathways are identified:
1. Resource Access and Availability: Climate variability and extreme events are degrading natural
resources and diminishing the availability of water and pasture, especially in the ASALs. A movement
toward areas where there is relatively more availability of water than in the dry grasslands is leading to
resource competition and conflict among pastoralist groups and between pastoralists and farmers.
2. Cattle Rustling and Raiding: The most prevalent form of conflict, particularly in the north of Kenya,
is the violent theft of cattle, also known as cattle rustling. Although cattle rustling has historically
served as a culturally embedded practice for wealth redistribution and as a rite of passage, the level
of violence has increased due to the scarcity of natural resources induced by the effects of climate
3. Livelihood and food insecurity: The combination of climate change and conflict places severe
pressure on the livelihood and food security of pastoralists, overburdening their adaptive capacities.
The necessary and inherent mobility of transhumance is altered by the intensity of violence induced
by conflict over resources, leading pastoralists to remain in place or choose longer distances for their
Dutta Gupta T, Madurga Lopez I, Läderach P, Pacillo G.