Cascading socio-environmental sustainability risks of agricultural export miracle in Peru
This commentary sheds light on the integration of cascading environmental, economic, and social risks into conscious sustainable development strategies. For this, we investigated the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), which was established in 1991 to simultaneously fight against the production, processing, and trafficking of illegal drugs while also developing alternative industries to expand economic opportunities in the Andean countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru); which are being faced with decades of narcotic violence and corruption. Accordingly, we unfolded the chains of mechanisms by which, cascading like toppling dominoes, the ATPA has led to a profitable economy but unsustainable environment and social inequality in the hyper-arid region of Ica in Peru. To pioneer Peru in sustainability risk management in Ica, hence, it is recommended to act towards regional sustainable irrigation expansion by employing efficient water-saving irrigation technologies. Finally, we indicated that freshwater should be considered as both natural and human rights in sustainable alternative development strategies.