Agroforestry Paradigms

In the four decades of its existence, agroforestry as a concept has been understood and defined in multiple ways, often referring to a specific system scale of interest. Its potential contribution to ‘restoration’ and ’conservation’ alongside ‘productivity’ of land has been expressed in many ways, emphasizing soil conservation, land degradation, food security, land use for integrated natural resource management, or biodiversity conservation. The range of studies include trees and their domestication, tree–soil–crop interactions at plot level, the interactions between land, labour, knowledge and risk at farm level, human livelihoods at landscape scale, dynamics of tree-cover change in space and time, social-ecological systems at landscape scale, the multiple value chains that start with tree, crop and livestock production in landscapes, and the policy domains of forestry and agriculture in the context of sustainable development goals, global change and multi-species agroecosystems, the role of trees in agro-ecology, responsible trade in globalizing markets and global climate change.